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1 Programming Fundamentals

3 Input Output

Input and output are fundamental concepts in computing, representing the flow of information between a system and the external world. Here's a breakdown of their key differences:


Input refers to the data or instructions that are fed into a system, like a computer program. This can come directly from a user, like typing on a keyboard, clicking a mouse, or using a scanner.

For instance, consider the following program which prompts the user to input their name. Here, the user would interact with the program by typing information via the keyboard. This action of providing data or typing a name is commonly referred to as input.


Output refers to the information or results generated by a system once it has processed the input.

For instance, consider the provided program that prompts the user to input their name. Subsequently, when the user enters their name, the program prints the message "My name is Henry Watson". In this context, the name entered by the user serves as the input, while the printed message constitutes the output.